Thursday, March 22nd, 2018


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Biochemical and Histopathological Examination of the Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Rat Kidneys
Authors:  Ahmet Dönder, Ph.D., Ragıp Balahoroglu, M.D., Haluk Dülger, Ph.D., Mehmet Ramazan Sekeroglu, Ph.D., Ahmet Yılmaz, M.D., Hamza Aslanhan, M.D., Senay Deveci, Ph.D., Engin Deveci, Ph.D., and Mikail Kara, Ph.D.
  Objective: To study the negative effects of cigarette smoke on the kidney, and to determine if those effects are reversed after smoking cessation.
Study Design:
A total of 40 rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 each: group I, control group; group II, rats exposed to cigarette smoke; group III, rats that discontinued smoking for 1 month; group IV, rats that discontinued smoking for 3 months; and group V, rats that discontinued smoking for 5 months. Serum urea, creatinine, cotinine, IL-18, NGAL, and KIM-1 levels were measured in the blood samples.
Cotinine levels in all groups were similar to those of the control group, but only the nicotine group had a significant increase. The active smoker group exposed to cigarette smoke displayed dense vacuolization. As a result of the exposure to cigarette smoke, increasing levels of urinary creatine, microalbumin, and β-2 microglobulin and urea in serum led to changes in KIM-1 and NGAL values, which result in dysfunction of glomeruli and tubules.
We observed that smoking cessation may lead to improvement after 3 months in both biochemical parameters and glomerular and tubular changes and approaches their normal values/structures 5 months later.
Keywords:  cigarette smoke; histopathology; IL-18; kidney; KIM-1; NGAL protein; nicotine; renal damage; renal disease; smoking; tobacco smoking
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